India’s textiles sector is one of the oldest industries in Indian economy dating back several centuries. India’s overall textile exports during FY 2017-18 stood at US$ 39.2 billion in FY18 and is expected to increase to US$ 82.00 billion by 2021 from US$ 31.65 billion in FY19*.
The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, with the hand-spun and hand-woven textiles sectors at one end of the spectrum, while the capital intensive sophisticated mills sector at the other end of the spectrum. The decentralised power looms/ hosiery and knitting sector form the largest component of the textiles sector. The close linkage of the textile industry to agriculture (for raw materials such as cotton) and the ancient culture and traditions of the country in terms of textiles make the Indian textiles sector unique in comparison to the industries of other countries. The Indian textile industry has the capacity to produce a wide variety of products suitable to different market segments, both within India and across the world.
The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 150 billion, is expected to reach US$ 250 billion by 2019. India’s textiles industry contributed seven per cent of the industry output (in value terms) of India in 2017-18.It contributed two per cent to the GDP of India and employs more than 45 million people in 2017-18.The sector contributed 15 per cent to the export earnings of India in 2017-18.
The production of raw cotton in India is estimated to have reached 36.1 million bales in FY19^.
The textiles sector has witnessed a spurt in investment during the last five years. The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 3.09 billion during April 2000 to December 2018.
Some of the major investments in the Indian textiles industry are as follows:
In May 2018, textiles sector recorded investments worth Rs 27,000 crore (US$ 4.19 billion) since June 2017.
The Government of India announced a Special Package to boost exports by US$ 31 billion, create one crore job opportunities and attract investments worth Rs 800.00 billion (US$ 11.93 billion) during 2018-2020. As of August 2018, it generated additional investments worth Rs 253.45 billion (US$ 3.78 billion) and exports worth Rs 57.28 billion (US$ 854.42 million).
The Indian government has come up with a number of export promotion policies for the textiles sector. It has also allowed 100 per cent FDI in the Indian textiles sector under the automatic route.
Initiatives taken by Government of India are:
The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) has revised rates for incentives under the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) for two subsectors of Textiles Industry – Readymade garments and Made ups – from 2 per cent to 4 per cent.
As of August 2018, the Government of India has increased the basic custom duty to 20 per cent from 10 per cent on 501 textile products, to boost Make in India and indigenous production.
The Government of India announced a Special Package to boost exports by US$ 31 billion, create one crore job opportunity and attract investments worth Rs 80,000 crore (US$ 11.93 billion) during 2018-2020. As of August 2018 it generated additional investments worth Rs 25,345 crore (US$ 3.78 billion) and exports worth Rs 57.28 billion (US$ 854.42 million).
The Government of India has taken several measures including Amended Technology Up- gradation Fund Scheme (A-TUFS), scheme is estimated to create employment for 35 lakh people and enable investments worth Rs 95,000 crore (US$ 14.17 billion) by 2022.
Integrated Wool Development Programme (IWDP) approved by Government of India to provide support to the wool sector starting from wool rearer to end consumer which aims to enhance the quality and increase the production during 2017-18 and 2019-20.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), Government of India has approved a new skill development scheme named ‘Scheme for Capacity Building in Textile Sector (SCBTS)’ with an outlay of Rs 1,300 crore (US$ 202.9 million) from 2017-18 to 2019-20.
Achievements Following are the achievements of the government in the past four years:
I-ATUFS, a web-based claims monitoring and tracking mechanism was launched on April 21, 2016.
381 new block level clusters were sanctioned.
20 new textile parks were sanctioned
Employment increased to 8.62 million in FY18 from 8.03 in FY15.
The future for the Indian textile industry looks promising, buoyed by both strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. With consumerism and disposable income on the rise, the retail sector has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade with the entry of several international players like Marks & Spencer, Guess and Next into the Indian market.
High economic growth has resulted in higher disposable income. This has led to rise in demand for products creating a huge domestic market.
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.0139 as of Q3 FY19.
References: Ministry of Textiles, Indian Textile Journal, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Press Information Bureau